Pathway Tools FAQ
Pathway Tools FAQ
This page contains a list of Pathway Tools Frequently Asked Questions and their answers.
Table of Contents:
- What are the system requirements -- hardware and software -- to use Pathway Tools?
- Display Problems
- Pathway Tools Hang or Freeze
- Running Pathway Tools as a WWW Server
- PGDB Maintenance/Editing/Transfer
- Windows (XP, NT, 2000) Specific Problems
- Using the Lisp API
- User-Provided Ortholog Data
- Configuring Pathway Tools
- Running multiple instances of Pathway Tools
0. What are the system requirements -- hardware and software -- to use Pathway Tools?
Please see the "Requirements" Section in the Pathway Tools Installation Guide.
1. Display Problems
1.1. Motif version: Problems with window resizing, fonts, and breaks
Q: On Linux, I am having problems with windows: subwindows are the
wrong size and cannot be resized, fonts look funny, and my system
sometimes freezes when I try to use the mouse with Pathway Tools.
What can I do?
A: The Unix Pathway Tools need Motif, which is a library of GUI widgets.
Under Linux, the correct version needs to have been installed to avoid
numerous problems. The symptoms described above can all be caused by
using Lesstif, a clone of the Motif window toolkit, rather than
OpenMotif, which is a free version of the official Motif library.
Ptools-8.0 expects Motif to be available as the dynamically loadable
libXm.so.2 . Make sure that
libXm.so.2 (located in either
/usr/X11R6/lib ) points to the OpenMotif version, not
Older Linux distributions tended to ship with Lesstif, in which case
you need to download and install OpenMotif yourself. This will require
access as the root user. Download OpenMotif from
The version with the most bug fixes appears to be
After installation, if you end up having both
libXm.so.3 , you probably
need to delete the Lesstif
libXm.so.2 , and make a
symbolic link from
ln -s libXm.so.3 libXm.so.2 ).
Redhat-9.x Linux appears to be shipped with OpenMotif installed
already. However, the version of the dynamically loadable library is
different from what the Pathway Tools program expects. The following is an
example of the failure symptom, when starting up the Pathway Tools:
Warning: Loading sys:climxm.so failed with error:
libXm.so.2: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory.
If the Pathway Tools image wants
libXm.so.2 but the OpenMotif
installation does not have that particular version link, please try to
make a symbolic link to "fake" that version, to see whether that will
work. Some variation of this example should do it (you will need to
be the root user):
ln -s libXm.so.2 libXm.so
Then restart the Pathway Tools. This fix is known to work on Redhat-9.x.
1.2. X-Display Emulation on Microsoft Windows PCs
Q: How can I get the Unix Pathway Tools to display on my Microsoft Windows Laptop ?
A: The Unix Pathway Tools use the X-Windows windowing system that allows
other Unix computers to display the Pathway Tools running on a central server.
X Emulators exist that allow this remote display to work on Microsoft
Windows computers as well. Not all emulators work equally well, though.
Exceed is a commercial product. A Demo version can be downloaded, to
be tried for free for 30 days. With version 7.0, SRI has had good
- Reflection X is a commercial product. One of our users said it works well.
- Cygwin X/Free86 is free, but in fall 2003, SRI had bad luck with this one.
- Xwin32 (??)(any opinions, anyone ?)
1.3. Debian Linux Error: Cannot open the display
Q: On Debian Linux, when I try to run Pathway Tools, I get an error
message of the form "Error: Cannot open the display: <myhostname>:0".
What is going on?
A: By default, the X Windows system on Debian Linux does not allow
connections to the X server via TCP. You need to search through the
config files in /etc/X11 and its subdirectories, and wherever you find
the string "-nolisten tcp", delete it.
2. Pathway Tools Hang or Freeze
2.1. All-purpose Abort character Control-Z
Q:I typed characters in the Navigator listener pane (at the bottom
of the screen) and the Navigator command menus no longer function --
what do I do?
A: Type ^Z (hold down the Control key and then strike the "Z"
key). The ^Z character is a convenient way to abort out of certain
menus as well.
2.2. Unresponsive GUI
Q: Pathway Tools does not respond. How do I continue ?
A: If you find that the software hangs and does not respond to your input, try the following:
- Wait 30 seconds -- the software may be computing or performing memory management.
- Verify that there are no hidden popup windows waiting for input.
- Check if the NUMLOCK mode on your keyboard has been selected by
pressing the NUMLOCK key. Selection of NUMLOCK mode interferes with
almost all Pathway Tools operations.
- On some computers, your mouse pointer must lie within the window
to which you wish your typing to be directed, or you must click on the
window to which you wish your typing to be otherwise that window will
not receive your typing.
- Look in the window in which you first started the Pathway Tools
(the window with the Unix shell). If you see a listing similar to the
following, then an error has occurred. Please
file a bug report to tell SRI about the error.
Restart actions (select using :continue):
0: Return to Pathway Tools command level
1: Pathway Tools top level
2: Exit Pathway Tools
[changing package from "USER" to "ECOCYC"]
The software is in a state called a "break" and you are interacting
with a debugger. You can probably resume operation by typing
:continue followed by the number of the line on which the text
"Pathway Tools top level" occurs. In the case shown here you would
type :continue 1 followed by Return.
If restarting did not work, try typing (exit) to exit from the
Pathway Tools (if you exit, you will lose any KB updates in the
current session that you have not already saved; to attempt to save
those changes, type (save-kb) before typing (exit)). You will now be
back to the operating system, and you can execute the Pathway Tools
- You can try to interrupt Pathway Tools
by typing the Control-C character in the original window in
which you invoked the software (you must move the mouse to that
window). Once the Pathway Tools receives the interrupt, you will see a
listing similar to that shown in (3), and you can restart or halt the
software as described under (3).
3. Running the Pathway Tools as a WWW Server
3.1. Graphics do not get generated
Q: My Ptools website doesn't display graphics.
A: The web server serves up graphics from the /tmp directory. If
that directory doesn't exist, it needs to be created. The user account
that runs Pathway Tools needs to have read-write access to the /tmp
3.2. Running server without staying logged in
Q: I want to run the web interface of Pathway Tools without having
to stay logged in. Please help.
A: Please see: How to logout after
starting the web interface of Pathway Tools.
4. PGDB Maintenance
4.1. Copying PGDBs from one computer to another
Q: How does one copy a file PGDB from one computer to another ?
Note that an easier way of moving PGDBs from one computer to another is to
register the PGDB in the Pathway Tools registry from the first computer, and to then download
the PGDB from the registry using the second computer. See the Pathway Tools
User's Guide for details.
A: Please see: How to Copy a PGDB
4.2. Importing a .ocelot Format PGDB into Pathway Tools
Q: How do you obtain a PGDB from the BioCyc data file distribution, and import it into Pathway Tools?
Note that an easier way of importing PGDBs into Pathway Tools is to download them
from the PGDB registry as described in the Pathway Tools User's Guide.
A: For instructions on loading .ocelot files directly
into Pathway Tools, please see: How to Import a .ocelot Format PGDB into Pathway Tools.
4.3. How can I edit or otherwise update PGDBs built into Pathway Tools?
PGDBs that are bundled into the Pathway Tools distribution are
usually "built-in" to the Pathway Tools binary executable. It is not
possible to edit or otherwise update such PGDBs directly. Such
updates cannot be saved, and if they were to be saved, they could not
overwrite the built-in versions of each PGDB.
A PGDB that you either build yourself, get
from someone as a flat-file copy, or obtain from the Pathway Tools Registry, will be editable.
However, one way that you can update a built-in PGDB is to save the
PGDB out as a separate file PGDB, which can be edited.
4.4 Making a copy of a PGDB on one computer (i.e. change the OrgID)
Sometimes you want to make changes to a PGDB, yet keep an
unmodified copy of the PGDB around, so that you can compare the
two versions, such as by running Pathway Tools in web mode, and
using the Comparative Analysis tools.
- If you want to make a copy of any PGDB, including built-in PGDBs
like MetaCyc, EcoCyc, or any of the Tier 2 PGDBS, make sure to heed the warning about the
default-version file as found in the external documentation about copying a PGDB from one computer to another.
You have to make sure to extend the shell variable
PTOOLS_ORG_ROOTS to include the path where you are placing any newly-copied PGDBs.
If you want to have the original PGDB and the newly-copied PGDB to be loaded into the same session of PTools, then you'll need to give the newly-copied PGDB a unique name & org-id. You'll have to:
- If the original PGDB is a file KB, make sure that it has been
saved to disk recently. If the original PGDB is a RDBMS KB, make
sure to run (backup-ekb) via the PTools Lisp API with the original PGDB as the current KB.
- Copy the original PGDB's directory structure to the new location
- Change the directory name from
- Change the org-id in the
footestcyc/[version]/input/organism.dat file to something unique, such as
- Modify the
ABBREV-NAME attributes in the same file to signify that they are different than the original. This helps avoid confusion.
- Don't forget to modify the
STORAGE attribute in the same file to be
- Go into the
footestcyc/[version]/kb directory, and move
foobase.ocelot file to
- Open up the
footestbase.ocelot file, and change the
:name attribute in the first s-expression (that starts with
:OCELOT-KB) to the org-id (from above,
FOOTEST) that you selected earlier.
- In the
footestbase.ocelot file, look for a top-level s-expression that starts a line with
(FOO NIL (, where
foo is the old org-id. Change it to the new org-id of the copied PGDB (i.e.,
- In the data directory for the PGDB, you'll need to rename some files in order to have the nucleotide and protein sequence data display correctly in PTools. Effectively, whenever you see a file with the prefix
foobase, it needs to be replaced with the prefix
footestbase. Also, there should be a file with a suffix of
.fsa, and a prefix of the Organism ID (i.e.,
foo). You'll need to change the prefix to the new Organism ID, such as
4.5. How can I convert my locally created file PGDB
to a MySQL PGDB? If I do this, will I be able to query my PGDB using
A: MySQL is a free, open-source relational database
management system. Using MySQL to store your PGDB instead of a file
enables multi-user concurrent access, change logging, and in some
cases faster load and save times. Because of the format in which the
data is stored, however, it will not allow you to access the data in
your PGDB by writing SQL queries. If you want to query a PGDB via SQL,
you can load the PGDB into an instance of BioWarehouse using the
If you wish to programmatically
access the data in Pathway Tools directly, you can use one of our Lisp, Perl or
MySQL can be obtained from http://www.mysql.com. We do not provide
any support for obtaining or installing the base MySQL software.
Instructions for configuring Pathway Tools to access MySQL and for
installing the Pathway Tools schema in your MySQL database can be
There is also a link to these instructions from the Pathway Tools
Once MySQL is installed and correctly configured, start up the Pathway
Tools Navigator, and invoke PathoLogic from the Tools menu. To
convert a particular PGDB to use MySQL select it in PathoLogic and
then invoke the command Organism->Convert File DB to MySQL DB.
5. Windows (XP, NT, 2000) Specific Problems
5.1. Heap Problems
These explanations apply to Allegro Common Lisp, which is the
underlying software used by Pathway Tools. Pathway Tools may require
a large amount of computer memory (RAM) to run some commands, to
access large PGDBs, or just to start up. The data used by Pathway
Tools is stored in a location called "the heap". When Pathway Tools is
started it tries to reserve one large block of memory for its heap,
probably around 700MB. If it cannot reserve this much memory, that
value is automatically lowered. In such a case you may see a message
of the form
Temporarily scaling back lisp reserved region from x to y bytes
where x should be around 700MB and y is smaller. This is not an error
in itself and Pathway Tools should continue to work.
Another possible error message is something like
lisp heap being relocated by yyyyy bytes
in that case, Pathway Tools is starting up, and this relocation
operation -- typically caused by a misconfigured Microsoft DLL -- may
take more than a minute. A typical culprit is Service Pack 2 which has
a DLL that is not relocatable in memory. This problem should not be
fatal, please wait for Pathway Tools to start up. Microsoft provides
a hotfix for Service Pack 2, and you will have to contact them
to download and install it.
In other cases, you may see an error message of the form
Error: An allocation request for x bytes caused tenuring and a
need for y more bytes of heap. The operating system will
not make the space available because the address space reserved
for the heap could not be increased.
The error message may vary, but if it contains the "heap could not be
increased", then it is a fatal error and you need to apply one or
more of the following remedies. (Please do them in this order)
- Check to see how much RAM and virtual memory you have. This can be
done by going to the Windows Control Panel (usually from the start
menu/settings), selecting "System" and then the "General" panel. This
panel should show the amount of RAM. If it is less then 256MB, it may
not be posible to run Pathway Tools with some PGDBs. Preferably it is
1GB or more (over 1000MB). If it is less, you can try to increase the
virtual memory by going to the "Advanced" panel, then to the
"Performance" section. You should see the amount of virtual memory
currently selected. If it is less then 400MB, it should be increased
to at least 700MB.
- Try to close down all other unneeded applications. This should
reduce memory usage. The Windows Task Manager may help you to
determine which applications are using large amount of memory. (The
Task Manager is available by right-clicking the task bar, usually
located at the bottom of your screen, then selecting it from the
- You should restart Pathway Tools after doing the previous
two steps. If the heap problem persists, try applying the
- The cause for lack of heap space may be due to one or more
dynamic libraries -- known as DLLs -- that Windows cannot
relocate. Unfortunately, on Windows, some DLLs may specify that they
cannot be relocated in memory (some do this even when it is not the
case). Pathway Tools requires a large block of contiguous memory for
its heap. If a DLL specifies that it resides in the area Pathway Tools
wants to use, Pathway Tools may give the above error
message. Therefore, your first step is to find such DLLs (hopefully
only one) and either deactivate the applications that use them (which
could be applications started when you boot your computer) or
permanently relocate the DLLs. The second option is more complicated
and should only be done if you really need the application active
while using Pathway Tools.
To find the application(s) that have DLLs that conflict with Pathway
Tools, please follow the instructions at the Franz
FAQ. On that page, there is a discussion of a utility called the
provided on the Microsoft web site, that should be downloaded and
installed on your Windows computer. Using this utility, you should
locate any application which uses memory addresses too close to
Pathway Tools, as
Relocating a DLL is not recommended and should only be done if the
application cannot be deactivated. For more information on how to
relocate a DLL, please follow the directions from the
6. Using the Lisp API
6.1. Setting up Emacs to interact with Pathway Tools in Lisp Mode
Pathway Tools has a built-in Lisp environment that you can use to programmatically query and modify your Pathway / Genome Database. You can access the Lisp listener by starting up Pathway Tools like so:
pathway-tools -lisp. Interacting with it via Emacs provides you with a fully-integrated IDE that provides debugging support, syntax high-lighting, and syntax-aware navigation commands. The recommended Common Lisp interaction platform for Pathway Tools users is SLIME, the Superior Lisp Interaction Mode for Emacs.
These instructions were generously provided by Jeremy Zucker.
- Download SLIME: slime-current.tgz
- Add this to your
'((ptools ("/usr/local/bin/pathway-tools" "-api" "-lisp") :init slime-init-command)))
(add-to-list 'load-path "/path/to/slime")
- Now, if you try to run
M-x slime, you will get an error like this:
Condition: Can't locate the module "SCM"
- The current workaround for this is to download Allegro Common Lisp (ACL),
files.bu into the pathway-tools exe directory (shown below).
Note, you do not need a license to download ACL. You only need one if you are planning to run ACL.
This is how you would do this on a Mac:
cp /Applications/AllegroCL/files.bu /usr/local/pathway-tools/aic-export/pathway-tools/12.5/exe
- Now, running M-x slime in emacs should just work.
7. User-Provided Ortholog Data
7.1. I have ortholog data. How do I get it into Pathway Tools?
Please see the following link for information on how to load Ortholog data
into Pathway Tools.
8. Configuring Pathway Tools
8.1. Configuration for multiple curators
If you plan to have multiple curators update a PGDB, there are several
possible ways to configure their usage of Pathway Tools.
First, we recommend that each PGDB that will be curated be stored in a
single relational database management system (DBMS). Oracle and MySQL
are the two DBMSs currently supported by Pathway Tools. All PGDBs
can be stored within one DBMS server.
This configuration allows multiple curators to access and update the
PGDB in parallel. The Pathway Tools that they run will access the DBMS
through network queries.
Curators can run and access Pathway Tools in several possible ways:
- A separate instance of Pathway Tools can be installed on each
- Curators can access a single shared instance of Pathway Tools
via X-Windows. For example, a curator could run an X-window
desktop on their Windows-NT computer, with Pathway Tools running
on a separate Unix computer, and the Pathway Tools windows
are transmitted via the network to the Windows-NT desktop.
- Curators with NFS access to a Pathway Tools instance can
each run Pathway Tools on their own workstation, but can access
a single Pathway Tools installation. This option is probably
the optimal one since it requires only a single installation of
Pathway Tools, yet it allows each curator to run Pathway Tools
on a separate computer.
8.2. Configuration for PGDBs stored in multiple MySQL servers
Please see the following link for how to access PGDBs on an alternate MySQL server.
8.3. Configuring Proxy Server Access to Circumvent a Firewall for Patch Downloading
Some institutions maintain firewalls, which prevent Pathway Tools from
connecting to the WWW server http://bioinformatics.ai.sri.com/ , which
is hosting software patches. Because bugs that are reported in
between major releases are fixed by issuing patches, it is important
that the patches can be downloaded by Pathway Tools, to fix any
These institutions tend to offer an alternate mechanism for WWW
access, going through a proxy server. Pathway Tools can download
patches through a proxy server, if configured correctly.
To activate proxy server access, the shell environment variable PROXY
has to be set to point to the proxy server and port, prior to
launching Pathway Tools. For UNIX, it is best to do this in one of
the user's shell init scripts such as
.login. As an example, in csh syntax:
setenv PROXY example.hostname.com:8888
For MSWindows, right-click on the "My Computer" icon (on the desktop),
and choose "Properties". In the window that opens click on the
"Advanced" tab, then click on the "Environment Variables" button. In
the opened window, under "System Variables" click the "New" button and
enter the name and value for the PROXY environment variable.
8.4. Configuring for off-line, standalone mode (suppressing Internet access)
In principle, Pathway Tools can be operated in an off-line manner.
However, by default, several types of Internet connections are
routinely made, which would have to be disabled. The following is a
(mostly complete) listing of connections to services.
For Pathway Tools 27.0 , it should be possible to disable most of the
connections described below, by calling the Lisp function
(run-in-standalone-mode) . This can be accomplished by supplying the
-eval '(run-in-standalone-mode)' commandline argument to the
pathway-tools invocation script.
- Upon startup, Ptools will look for any new patches to download
and install, to keep Ptools up to date. This can be prevented by
supplying the -no-patch-download commandline argument to the
pathway-tools invocation script. However, we recommend having an
alternate access to the patches. For example, if a user runs into a
software bug in Ptools, we will usually issue a patch for the fix,
which then would have to manually downloaded and installed.
The patches can be downloaded under the following URL:
, whereby VERSION is the release version of the Pathway Tools
software. The operating system of the computer, on which Ptools is
running, needs to be specified by PLATFORM, and the following
An example URL for the 27.0 version of Linux would be this:
After the patch files have been downloaded, they have to be copied
into the patches directory under the Ptools installation directory.
The patches directory has a sub-directory, the name of which starts
with bin-. The *.fasl patches need to go inside of
this sub-directory. An example path for the 27.0 version of Linux
would be this:
- When running certain comparative operations, SRI's public ortholog
server will be accessed, to obtain the ortholog data. This can be suppressed by
uncommenting the parameter called Get-Orthologs-From-SRI and setting it
to N. This parameter is found in the ptools-init.dat file.
However, comparisons that rely on ortholog data will thereafter no
longer run properly, unless a user supplies their own ortholog database. Such
a MySQL database would first have to be prepared, and the
corresponding access parameters in the ptools-init.dat file
will have to be configured. See section 7.1. for
- The PGDB Registry can be accessed, to check for newer versions of
already installed PGDBs. This can be prevented by supplying the
-standalone commandline argument to the pathway-tools
- If curation is performed on a PGDB and Pubmed ID citations are added
to comments in the editing tools, there are attempts to download the
full citations (including authors, title, etc.) from Pubmed.
- The Genome Context server can be accessed from a gene page, if
this was enabled in the ptools-init.dat file.
- When building new PGDBs by the "Pathologic" functionality, a
server at SRI is queried initially, to obtain a unique ID for the new
PGDB (to avoid potential namespace collisions). If there is no
network access, this query should simply time out, and the user will
need to pick their own ID, when prompted.
9. Running multiple instances of Pathway Tools
9.1 Command line arguments to run multiple instances in batch mode w/o using X11
Some users want to run multiple instances of Pathway Tools concurrently to do
large-scale processing, such as creating many PGDBs with batch PathoLogic.
Typically multiple jobs are run in a distributed computing environment.
Creation of each PGDB will take 5-15 minutes depending on which inference
modules are enabled.
It is helpful if the compute nodes have internet access to download the latest
Pathway Tools patches, and because some inference modules (such as the Pathway Hole Filler)
download data via the internet.
If you plan to run multiple Pathway Tools concurrently (typically using PathoLogic),
we recommend using the following command-line arguments:
- -no-cel-overview (see Section 2.3)
- -no-web-cel-overview (see Section 2.3)
- -disable-metadata-saving (for Pathway Tools version 18.5+) -- eliminates contention for the metadata-kb.
If you do provide this switch, building the metadata kb after building all PGDBs will speed
Pathway Tools startup. To build the metadata kb, invoke Pathway Tools with the command-line argument -update-pgdb-metadata (for Pathway Tools version 22.5+), or invoke Pathway Tools with the -lisp command-line argument and then enter (update-pgdb-metadata-kb) at the lisp prompt.
- -nologfile (turns off an extra debugging log which can cause contention between processes)